Peri – implantitis
Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. Two entities are described within the concept of peri-implant disease: peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is defined as a reversible inflammatory reaction in the soft tissues surrounding an implant. Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory reaction with loss of supporting bone in the tissues surrounding an implant
The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, degree of roughness, and excessive mechanical load. Bacterial flora, which are associated with periodontitis (gum disease surrounding natural teeth) and peri-implantitis, are found to be similar.
Diagnosis is based on changes of colour in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, presence of pus discharge, X-ray, and loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the cleaning of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone.